Reproductive tract disease is commonplace in avian medicine, especially among female birds. The unique anatomy and physiology of the avian reproductive tract results in a highly productive, but poorly accessible organ system. Affected hens are commonly presented with non-specific lethargy, coelomic swelling and sometimes laying abnormal eggs. Although many reproductive tract diseases can be managed medically, there is a definite need for surgical intervention in some cases. Because of internal location, various diseases and normal physiologic processes that can dramatically alter appearances, a clear understanding of the anatomy of the avian female reproductive tract is vital prior to surgical exploration. This lab will focus on anatomy, specialized surgical equipment, tissue identification and handling and several female reproductive tract surgical procedures that are commonly performed in avian practice.